Psychometrics and Scale Development

Psychometrics and Scale Development

Research Papers and Resources:

Personality Project:

Paul Spector’s Website:

Scale Development Papers

  • Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). An updated paradigm for scale development incorporating unidimensionality and its assessment. Journal of Marketing Research, 25, 186-192.
  • Blanton, H., & Jaccard, J. (2006). Arbitrary metrics in psychology. American Psychologist, 61, 27-41.
  • Bollen, K. A., & Lennox, R. (1991). Conventional wisdom on measurement: A structural equation perspective. Psychological Bulletin, 110(2), 305–314.
  • Boorsboom, D., Mellenbergh, G.J., & van Heerden, J. (2004). The concept of validity. Psychological Review, 111, 1061-1071.
  • Campbell, D. T. & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 100-122.
  • Churchill, Gilbert A., Jr. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16, 64-73.
  • Cox, E. (1980). The optimal number of response alternatives in a scale: A review. Journal of Marketing Research, 17, 407-422.
  • Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272-299.
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, XVIII, 39-50.
  • Hinkin, Timothy R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organizations. Journal of Management, 21, 967-988.
  • Gescheider, G. A. (1988) Psychophysical scaling. Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 169-200.
  • Heggestad, E. D., Scheaf, D. J., Banks, G. C., Monroe Hausfeld, M., Tonidandel, S., & Williams, E. B. (2019). Scale adaptation in organizational science research: A review and best-practice recommendations. Journal of Management, 45(6), 2596-2627.
  • Maxwell, S.E. & Delany, H.D. (1985) Measurement and statistics: An examination of construct validity. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 85-93.
  • Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from persons’ responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 741-749.
  • Young, F. W. (1984) Scaling. Annual Review of Psychology, 35, 55-81.

Example Papers on Scale Development